Document


UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
____________________
FORM 8-K
CURRENT REPORT
Pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the
Securities Exchange Act of 1934
Date of Report (Date of earliest event reported): May 18, 2018
____________________
ELLIE MAE, INC.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Delaware
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation)
001-35140
(Commission File Number)
94-3288780
(IRS Employer Identification Number)
4420 Rosewood Drive, Suite 500
Pleasanton, California 94588
(Address of principal executive offices, including Zip Code)
Registrant’s telephone number, including area code: (925) 227-7000
____________________
Check the appropriate box below if the Form 8-K filing is intended to simultaneously satisfy the filing obligation of the registrant under any of the following provisions:
o
Written communications pursuant to Rule 425 under the Securities Act (17 CFR 230.425)
o
Soliciting material pursuant to Rule 14a-12 under the Exchange Act (17 CFR 240.14a-12)
o
Pre-commencement communications pursuant to Rule 14d-2(b) under the Exchange Act (17 CFR 240.14d-2(b))
o
Pre-commencement communications pursuant to Rule 13e-4(c) under the Exchange Act (17 CFR 240.13e-4(c))
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is an emerging growth company as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act of 1933 (§230.405 of this chapter) or Rule 12b-2 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (§240.12b-2 of this chapter).
Emerging growth company o
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. o






Item 5.03 Amendments to Articles of Incorporation or Bylaws; Change in Fiscal Year.
At the annual meeting of stockholders of Ellie Mae, Inc. (the “Company”) held on May 18, 2018 (the “Annual Meeting”), the Company’s stockholders approved an amendment to the Company’s Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation (the “Amended Charter”) and the Company’s Amended and Restated Bylaws (the “Amended Bylaws”), each as described in Proposal No. 5 of the definitive proxy statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on April 4, 2018 (the “Proxy”). The Amended Charter and Amended Bylaws provide for the declassification of the Board of Directors of the Company (the “Board”) to allow the Company’s stockholders to vote on an election of the entire Board on an annual basis, rather than on a staggered basis (the “Amendment”).
Effective May 18, 2018, the Company filed with the Secretary of State of the State of Delaware the Amended Charter to reflect the Amendment, which became effective upon filing.
The foregoing summary does not purport to be complete and is qualified in its entirety by reference to the full text of the Amended Charter, a copy of which is attached as Exhibit 3.1 hereto and incorporated herein by reference, and the Amended Bylaws, a copy of which is attached as Exhibit 3.2 hereto and incorporated herein by reference.
Item 5.07 Submission of Matters to a Vote of Security Holders.
At the Annual Meeting, stockholders holding and entitled to vote 32,423,652 shares of common stock of the Company, or approximately 94.5% of the total outstanding shares of common stock on the record date for the Annual Meeting, were present in person or by proxy. At the Annual Meeting, the stockholders voted on the following six proposals, each of which is described in detail in the Proxy. The voting results are reported below.
Proposal No. 1: Election of Directors. The following individuals were elected to the Board to hold office until the 2021 annual meeting of stockholders or until such director’s successor is duly elected and qualified or until his earlier resignation or removal. The results of the election were as follows: 
Nominee
For
Withheld
Broker Non-Votes
Sigmund Anderman
30,415,997
93,083
1,914,572
Craig Davis
29,632,476
876,604
1,914,572
Rajat Taneja
29,586,577
922,503
1,914,572





Proposal No. 2: Ratification of Selection of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm. The stockholders ratified the selection of Grant Thornton LLP as the Company’s independent registered public accounting firm for the fiscal year ending December 31, 2018. There were no broker non-votes on this proposal. The results of the ratification were as follows: 
For
Against
Abstain
32,219,922
198,755
4,975
Proposal No. 3: Advisory Vote to Approve Executive Compensation. The stockholders approved, on a non-binding advisory basis, the compensation of the Company’s named executive officers as disclosed in the Proxy. The results of the vote were as follows: 
For
Against
Abstain
Broker Non-Votes
29,910,128
563,882
35,070
1,914,572
Proposal No. 4: Advisory Vote on the Frequency of Future Stockholder Advisory votes on Executive Compensation. The stockholders approved, on a non-binding advisory basis, the frequency of future advisory votes on executive compensation. The results of the vote were as follows: 
1 Year
2 Years
3Years
Abstain
Broker Non-Votes
30,092,891
2,243
334,955
78,991
1,914,572
Based on the recommendation of the Board in the Proxy for the Annual Meeting and the voting results with respect to the non-binding advisory vote to determine the frequency of future advisory votes on executive compensation, the Company will hold an advisory vote on executive compensation annually.
Proposal No. 5: Vote to Approve Amendment to Certificate of Incorporation and Bylaws to Provide for the Annual Election of Directors. The stockholders approved the amendment to the Company’s Certificate of Incorporation and Bylaws. The results of the vote were as follows:
For
Against
Abstain
Broker Non-Votes
30,424,884
9,224
74,972
1,914,572
Proposal No. 6: Stockholder Proposal Requesting the Company to Amend Governing Documents to Allow Stockholders to Call a Special Meeting. The stockholders did not approve the adoption of a stockholder proposal requesting the Company to amend its governing documents to allow stockholders to call a special meeting. The results of the vote were as follows: 
For
Against
Abstain
Broker Non-Votes
8,535,957
21,037,660
935,463
1,914,572
 The results reported above are final voting results.
 





Item 9.01. Financial Statements and Exhibits.
(d) Exhibits.
Exhibit No.
 
Description
3.1
 
3.2
 







SIGNATURES
Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, the registrant has duly caused this report to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned hereunto duly authorized.
 
Date: May 22, 2018
ELLIE MAE, INC.
 
 
 
By: /s/ Brian Brown
 
Name: Brian Brown
 
Title: Executive Vice President & General Counsel

 
 



Exhibit

CERTIFICATE OF AMENDMENT
TO THE
AMENDED AND RESTATED CERTIFICATE OF INCORPORATION
OF
ELLIE MAE, INC.

Ellie Mae, Inc., a corporation organized and existing under the laws of the State of Delaware (the “Corporation”), hereby certifies that:
ONE: The name of the Corporation is Ellie Mae, Inc. and the Corporation was incorporated on October 14, 2009 pursuant to the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware (the “Delaware General Corporation Law”).
TWO: The Corporation filed an Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation with the Secretary of State of the State of Delaware on June 17, 2015 (the “Restated Certificate”).
THREE: Article (V)(A)(2) of the Restated Certificate is hereby amended and restated to read in its entirety as follows:
“(2)    Subject to the rights of any series of Preferred Stock then outstanding to elect additional directors under specified circumstances, the directors shall be divided into three classes, designated as Class I, Class II and Class III, and each such director shall hold office for a term expiring at the annual meeting of stockholders held in the third year following the year of his or her election, with the members of each class to hold office until their successors have been elected and qualified. Notwithstanding the foregoing, effective as of the annual meeting of stockholders to be held in 2019 (the “2019 Annual Meeting”), and at each annual meeting of stockholders thereafter, subject to the rights granted to holders of any series of Preferred Stock to elect additional directors under specified circumstances, each director elected at and after the 2019 Annual Meeting shall be elected for a term expiring at the next succeeding annual meeting of stockholders and until such director’s successor shall have been elected and qualified; provided, however, that any director who prior to the 2019 Annual Meeting was elected to a term that continues beyond the date of the 2019 Annual Meeting (such term, a “Classified Term”), shall continue to serve as a director for the remainder of his or her elected Classified Term or until his or her death, resignation, disqualification or removal (each such director, including any director appointed to fill a vacancy caused by the death, resignation, disqualification, removal or other cause of such director, a “Continuing Classified Director”; provided that any such director shall cease to be a Continuing Classified Director upon the expiration of the Classified Term to which he or she was most recently elected or appointed). As a result, effective as of the annual meeting of stockholders in 2021, the Board will no longer be classified under Section 141(d) of the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware and directors shall no longer be divided into classes. Any director that is not a Continuing Classified Director may be removed with or without cause by the affirmative vote of the holders of a majority of the voting power of the Voting Stock, voting together as a single class.”
FOUR: The foregoing amendment has been duly approved by the Board of Directors of the Corporation in accordance with the provisions of Section 242 of the Delaware General Corporation Law.
FIVE: The foregoing amendment has been duly approved by the stockholders of the Corporation in accordance with the provisions of Section 242 of the Delaware General Corporation Law.

* * * *











IN WITNESS WHEREOF, Ellie Mae, Inc., has caused this Certificate of Amendment to the Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation to be executed by its duly authorized officer on this 18th day of May, 2018.


 
 
 
ELLIE MAE, INC.
 
 
 
By:
/s/ Jonathan Corr
 
Jonathan Corr
 
President & Chief Executive Officer


Exhibit










AMENDED AND RESTATED BYLAWS OF
ELLIE MAE, INC.
(a Delaware corporation)
(as of May 18, 2018)





TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page


Article I
CORPORATE OFFICES    1
1.1
REGISTERED OFFICE    1
1.2
OTHER OFFICES    1
Article II
MEETINGS OF STOCKHOLDERS    1
2.1
PLACE OF MEETINGS    1
2.2
ANNUAL MEETING    1
2.3
SPECIAL MEETING    1
2.4
ADVANCE NOTICE PROCEDURES FOR BUSINESS BROUGHT BEFORE A MEETING    2
2.5
ADVANCE NOTICE PROCEDURES FOR NOMINATIONS OF DIRECTORS    6
2.6
NOTICE OF STOCKHOLDERS’ MEETINGS    9
2.7
MANNER OF GIVING NOTICE; AFFIDAVIT OF NOTICE    9
2.8
QUORUM    9
2.9
ADJOURNED MEETING; NOTICE    10
2.10
CONDUCT OF BUSINESS    10
2.11
VOTING    10
2.12
STOCKHOLDER ACTION BY WRITTEN CONSENT WITHOUT A MEETING    11
2.13
RECORD DATE FOR STOCKHOLDER NOTICE; VOTING; GIVING CONSENTS    11
2.14
PROXIES    11
2.15
LIST OF STOCKHOLDERS ENTITLED TO VOTE    12
2.16
INSPECTORS OF ELECTION    12
2.17
STOCKHOLDER NOMINATIONS INCLUDED IN THE CORPORATION’S PROXY MATERIALS    13
Article III
DIRECTORS    20
3.1
POWERS    20
3.2
NUMBER OF DIRECTORS    20
3.3
ELECTION, QUALIFICATION AND TERM OF OFFICE OF DIRECTORS    20
3.4
RESIGNATION AND VACANCIES    20
3.5
PLACE OF MEETINGS; MEETINGS BY TELEPHONE    21
3.6
REGULAR MEETINGS    21

 
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
(continued)
Page


3.7
SPECIAL MEETINGS; NOTICE    21
3.8
QUORUM    22
3.9
BOARD ACTION BY WRITTEN CONSENT WITHOUT A MEETING    22
3.10
FEES AND COMPENSATION OF DIRECTORS    22
3.11
REMOVAL OF DIRECTORS    22
Article IV
COMMITTEES    23
4.1
COMMITTEES OF DIRECTORS    23
4.2
COMMITTEE MINUTES    23
4.3
MEETINGS AND ACTION OF COMMITTEES    23
Article V
OFFICERS    24
5.1
OFFICERS    24
5.2
APPOINTMENT OF OFFICERS    24
5.3
SUBORDINATE OFFICERS    24
5.4
REMOVAL AND RESIGNATION OF OFFICERS    24
5.5
VACANCIES IN OFFICES    25
5.6
REPRESENTATION OF SHARES OF OTHER CORPORATIONS    25
5.7
AUTHORITY AND DUTIES OF OFFICERS    25
5.8
LIMITATIONS ON NON-CITIZENS AS OFFICERS    25
Article VI
RECORDS AND REPORTS    25
6.1
MAINTENANCE AND INSPECTION OF RECORDS    25
6.2
INSPECTION BY DIRECTORS    26
Article VII
GENERAL MATTERS    26
7.1
EXECUTION OF CORPORATE CONTRACTS AND INSTRUMENTS    26
7.2
TRANSFER AGENT AND REGISTRARS    26
7.3
STOCK CERTIFICATES; PARTLY PAID SHARES    26
7.4
SPECIAL DESIGNATION ON CERTIFICATES    27
7.5
LOST CERTIFICATES    27
7.6
CONSTRUCTION; DEFINITIONS    27
7.7
DIVIDENDS    28
7.8
FISCAL YEAR    28

 
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
(continued)
Page


7.9
SEAL    28
7.10
TRANSFER OF STOCK    28
7.11
STOCK TRANSFER AGREEMENTS    28
7.12
REGISTERED STOCKHOLDERS    28
7.13
WAIVER OF NOTICE    29
7.13
EXCLUSIVE FORUM    29
Article VIII
NOTICE BY ELECTRONIC TRANSMISSION    29
8.1
NOTICE BY ELECTRONIC TRANSMISSION    29
8.2
DEFINITION OF ELECTRONIC TRANSMISSION    30
Article IX
INDEMNIFICATION    30
9.1
INDEMNIFICATION OF DIRECTORS AND OFFICERS    30
9.2
INDEMNIFICATION OF OTHERS    31
9.3
PREPAYMENT OF EXPENSES    31
9.4
DETERMINATION; CLAIM    31
9.5
NON-EXCLUSIVITY OF RIGHTS    31
9.6
INSURANCE    31
9.7
OTHER INDEMNIFICATION    32
9.8
CONTINUATION OF INDEMNIFICATION    32
9.9
AMENDMENT OR REPEAL    32
Article X
LIMITATIONS OF OWNERSHIP BY NON-CITIZENS    32
10.1
DEFINITIONS    32
10.2
LIMITATIONS ON OWNERSHIP    33
10.3
FOREIGN STOCK RECORD    33
10.4
SUSPENSION OF VOTING RIGHTS    34
10.5
CERTIFICATION OF CITIZENSHIP    34
Article XI
AMENDMENTS    35


 
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AMENDED AND RESTATED
BYLAWS OF ELLIE MAE, INC.
ARTICLE I
CORPORATE OFFICES
1.1    REGISTERED OFFICE.
The registered office of Ellie Mae, Inc. (the “Corporation”) shall be fixed in the Corporation’s Certificate of Incorporation, as the same may be amended from time to time.
1.2    OTHER OFFICES.
The Corporation’s board of directors (the “Board”) may at any time establish other offices at any place or places where the Corporation is qualified to do business.
ARTICLE II    
MEETINGS OF STOCKHOLDERS
2.1    PLACE OF MEETINGS.
Meetings of stockholders shall be held at any place, within or outside the State of Delaware, designated by the Board. The Board may, in its sole discretion, determine that a meeting of stockholders shall not be held at any place, but may instead be held solely by means of remote communication as authorized by Section 211(a)(2) of the Delaware General Corporation Law (the “DGCL”). In the absence of any such designation or determination, stockholders’ meetings shall be held at the Corporation’s principal executive office.
2.2    ANNUAL MEETING.
The annual meeting of stockholders shall be held each year. The Board shall designate the date and time of the annual meeting, taking into account that the annual meeting shall be held as closely as practicable in the same month of each year so as to ensure that the terms of the office of directors shall approximate a complete year in length. At the annual meeting, directors shall be elected and other proper business properly brought before the meeting in accordance with Section 2.4 of this Article II may be transacted.
2.3    SPECIAL MEETING.
A special meeting of the stockholders may be called at any time by the Board, chairperson of the Board, chief executive officer or president (in the absence of a chief executive officer). In addition, the Board shall call a special meeting of the stockholders upon the written request of one or more stockholders holding in the aggregate 25% or more of the voting power of the Corporation entitled to vote on the business to be brought before the meeting. The written request shall specify the time of such meeting and general nature of the business proposed to be transacted in accordance with Section 2.4(c), and be delivered to the Secretary of the Corporation (“Secretary”).
The Secretary shall cause notice to be promptly given to the stockholders entitled to vote at such meeting that a meeting will be held at the time requested by the person(s) calling the meeting. No business may be transacted at such special meeting other than the business specified in such notice to







stockholders. Nothing contained in this paragraph of this Section 2.3 shall be construed as limiting, fixing, or affecting the time when a meeting of stockholders called by action of the Board may be held.
2.4    ADVANCE NOTICE PROCEDURES FOR BUSINESS BROUGHT BEFORE A MEETING.
(a)    At an annual meeting of the stockholders, only such business shall be conducted as shall have been properly brought before the meeting. To be properly brought before an annual meeting, business must be (i) brought before the meeting by the Corporation and specified in the notice of meeting given by or at the direction of the Board, (ii) brought before the meeting by or at the direction of the Board, or (iii) otherwise properly brought before the meeting by a stockholder who (A) was a stockholder of record of the Corporation (and, with respect to any beneficial owner, if different, on whose behalf such business is proposed, only if such beneficial owner was the beneficial owner of shares of the Corporation) both at the time of giving the notice provided for in this Section 2.4 and at the time of the meeting, (B) is entitled to vote at the meeting, and (C) has complied with all of the notice procedures set forth in this Section 2.4 as to such business. Except for proposals made in accordance with Rule 14a-8 under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (including such rules and regulations promulgated thereunder, the “Exchange Act”), and included in the notice of meeting given by or at the direction of the Board, the foregoing clause (iii) shall be the exclusive means for a stockholder to propose business to be brought before an annual meeting of the stockholders. The only matters that may be brought before a special meeting are the matters specified in the notice of meeting given by or at the direction of the person properly calling the meeting pursuant to Article II, Section 2.3 of these Bylaws. Stockholders seeking to nominate persons for election to the Board must comply with the notice procedures set forth in Article II, Section 2.5 of these Bylaws, and this Section 2.4 shall not be applicable to nominations except as expressly provided in Article II, Section 2.5 of these Bylaws.
(b)    For business to be properly brought before an annual meeting by a stockholder, the stockholder must (i) provide Timely Notice (as defined below) thereof in writing and in proper form to the Secretary of the Corporation and (ii) provide any updates or supplements to such notice at the times and in the forms required by this Section 2.4. To be timely, a stockholder’s notice must be delivered to or mailed and received at the principal executive offices of the Corporation not less than ninety (90) days nor more than one hundred twenty (120) days prior to the first anniversary of the preceding year’s annual meeting; provided, however, that in the event that the date of the annual meeting is more than thirty (30) days before or more than sixty (60) days after such anniversary date, notice by the stockholder to be timely must be so delivered, or mailed and received, not earlier than the one hundred twentieth (120th) day prior to such annual meeting and not later than the ninetieth (90th) day prior to such annual meeting or, if later, the tenth (10th) day following the day on which public disclosure of the date of such annual meeting was first made (such notice within such time periods, “Timely Notice”). In no event shall any adjournment or postponement of an annual meeting or the announcement thereof commence a new time period for the giving of Timely Notice as described above.
(c)    To be in proper form for purposes of Section 2.3 and this Section 2.4, a stockholder’s notice to the Secretary pursuant to Section 2.3 or this Section 2.4 shall be required to set forth:
(i)    as to each Proposing Person (as defined below), (A) the name and address of such Proposing Person (including, if applicable, the name and address that appear on the Corporation’s books and records) and (B) the class or series and number of shares of the capital stock of the Corporation that are, directly or indirectly, owned of record or beneficially owned (within the meaning of Rule 13d-3 under the Exchange Act) by such Proposing Person, except that such Proposing Person shall in all events

2




be deemed to beneficially own any shares of any class or series of capital stock of the Corporation as to which such Proposing Person has a right to acquire beneficial ownership at any time in the future (the disclosures to be made pursuant to the foregoing clauses (A) and (B) are referred to as “Stockholder Information”);
(ii)    as to each Proposing Person, (A) any derivative, swap or other transaction or series of transactions engaged in, directly or indirectly, by such Proposing Person, the purpose or effect of which is to give such Proposing Person economic risk similar to ownership of shares of any class or series of the capital stock of the Corporation, including due to the fact that the value of such derivative, swap or other transactions are determined by reference to the price, value or volatility of any shares of any class or series of the capital stock of the Corporation, or which derivative, swap or other transactions provide, directly or indirectly, the opportunity to profit from any increase in the price or value of shares of any class or series of the capital stock of the Corporation (“Synthetic Equity Interests”), which Synthetic Equity Interests shall be disclosed without regard to whether (x) the derivative, swap or other transactions convey any voting rights in such shares to such Proposing Person, (y) the derivative, swap or other transactions are required to be, or are capable of being, settled through delivery of such shares or (z) such Proposing Person may have entered into other transactions that hedge or mitigate the economic effect of such derivative, swap or other transactions, (B) any proxy (other than a revocable proxy or consent given in response to a solicitation made pursuant to, and in accordance with, Section 14(a) of the Exchange Act by way of a solicitation statement filed on Schedule 14A), agreement, arrangement, understanding or relationship pursuant to which such Proposing Person has or shares a right to vote any shares of any class or series of the capital stock of the Corporation, (C) any agreement, arrangement, understanding or relationship, including any repurchase or similar so-called “stock borrowing” agreement or arrangement, engaged in, directly or indirectly, by such Proposing Person, the purpose or effect of which is to mitigate loss to, reduce the economic risk (of ownership or otherwise) of shares of any class or series of the capital stock of the Corporation to, manage the risk of share price changes for, or increase or decrease the voting power of, such Proposing Person with respect to the shares of any class or series of the capital stock of the Corporation, or which provides, directly or indirectly, the opportunity to profit from any decrease in the price or value of the shares of any class or series of capital stock of the Corporation (“Short Interests”), (D) any rights to dividends on the shares of any class or series of the capital stock of the Corporation owned beneficially by such Proposing Person that are separated or separable from the underlying shares of the Corporation, (E) any performance related fees (other than an asset-based fee) that such Proposing Person is entitled to based on any increase or decrease in the price or value of shares of any class or series of the capital stock of the Corporation, or any Synthetic Equity Interests or Short Interests, if any, (F)(x) if such Proposing Person is not a natural person, the identity of the natural person or persons associated with such Proposing Person responsible for the formulation of and decision to propose the business to be brought before the meeting (such person or persons, the “Responsible Person”), the manner in which such Responsible Person was selected, any fiduciary duties owed by such Responsible Person to the equity holders or other beneficiaries of such Proposing Person, the qualifications and background of such Responsible Person and any material interests or relationships of such Responsible Person that are not shared generally by any other record or beneficial holder of the shares of any class or series of the capital stock of the Corporation and that reasonably could have influenced the decision of such Proposing Person to propose such business to be brought before the meeting, and (y) if such Proposing Person is a natural person, the qualifications and background of such natural person and any material interests or relationships of such natural person that are not shared generally by any other record or beneficial holder of the shares of any class or series of the capital stock of the Corporation and that reasonably could have influenced the decision of such Proposing Person to propose such business to be brought before the meeting, (G) any significant equity interests or any Synthetic Equity Interests or Short Interests in any principal competitor of the Corporation

3




held by such Proposing Persons, (H) any direct or indirect interest of such Proposing Person in any contract with the Corporation, any affiliate of the Corporation or any principal competitor of the Corporation (including, in any such case, any employment agreement, collective bargaining agreement or consulting agreement), (I) any pending or threatened litigation in which such Proposing Person is a party or material participant involving the Corporation or any of its officers or directors, or any affiliate of the Corporation, (J) any material transaction occurring during the prior twelve months between such Proposing Person, on the one hand, and the Corporation, any affiliate of the Corporation or any principal competitor of the Corporation, on the other hand, (K) a summary of any material discussions regarding the business proposed to be brought before the meeting (x) between or among any of the Proposing Persons or (y) between or among any Proposing Person and any other record or beneficial holder of the shares of any class or series of the capital stock of the Corporation (including their names) and (L) any other information relating to such Proposing Person that would be required to be disclosed in a proxy statement or other filing required to be made in connection with solicitations of proxies or consents by such Proposing Person in support of the business proposed to be brought before the meeting pursuant to Section 14(a) of the Exchange Act (the disclosures to be made pursuant to the foregoing clauses (A) through (L) are referred to as “Disclosable Interests”); provided, however, that Disclosable Interests shall not include any such disclosures with respect to the ordinary course business activities of any broker, dealer, commercial bank, trust company or other nominee who is a Proposing Person solely as a result of being the stockholder directed to prepare and submit the notice required by these Bylaws on behalf of a beneficial owner; and
(iii)    as to each item of business that the stockholder proposes to bring before the special meeting or annual meeting, (A) a reasonably brief description of the business desired to be brought before the special meeting or annual meeting, the reasons for conducting such business at the special meeting or annual meeting and any material interest in such business of each Proposing Person, (B) the text of the proposal or business (including the text of any resolutions proposed for consideration and in the event that such business includes a proposal to amend these Bylaws, the language of the proposed amendment) and (C) a reasonably detailed description of all agreements, arrangements and understandings between or among any of the Proposing Persons or between or among any Proposing Person and any other person or entity (including their names) in connection with the proposal of such business by such stockholder.
(d)    For purposes of this Section 2.4, the term “Proposing Person shall mean (i) the stockholder providing the notice of business proposed to be brought before a special meeting or annual meeting, (ii) the beneficial owner or beneficial owners, if different, on whose behalf the notice of the business proposed to be brought before the special meeting or annual meeting is made, (iii) any affiliate or associate (each within the meaning of Rule 12b-2 under the Exchange Act for the purposes of these Bylaws) of such stockholder or beneficial owner and (iv) any other person with whom such stockholder or beneficial owner (or any of their respective affiliates or associates) is Acting in Concert (as defined below).
(e)    A person shall be deemed to be “Acting in Concert” with another person for purposes of these Bylaws if such person knowingly acts (whether or not pursuant to an express agreement, arrangement or understanding) in concert with, or towards a common goal relating to the management, governance or control of the Corporation in parallel with, such other person where (i) each person is conscious of the other person’s conduct or intent and this awareness is an element in their decision-making processes and (ii) at least one additional factor suggests that such persons intend to act in concert or in parallel, which such additional factors may include, without limitation, exchanging information (whether publicly or privately), attending meetings, conducting discussions, or making or soliciting

4




invitations to act in concert or in parallel; provided, however, that a person shall not be deemed to be Acting in Concert with any other person solely as a result of the solicitation or receipt of revocable proxies or consents from such other person in response to a solicitation made pursuant to, and in accordance with, the Section 14(a) of the Exchange Act by way of a proxy or consent solicitation statement filed on Schedule 14A. A person Acting in Concert with another person shall be deemed to be Acting in Concert with any third party who is also Acting in Concert with such other person.
(f)    A stockholder providing notice of business proposed to be brought before a special meeting or annual meeting shall further update and supplement such notice, if necessary, so that the information provided or required to be provided in such notice pursuant to this Section 2.4 shall be true and correct as of the record date for the meeting and as of the date that is ten (10) business days prior to the meeting or any adjournment or postponement thereof, and such update and supplement shall be delivered to, or mailed and received by, the Secretary at the principal executive offices of the Corporation not later than five (5) business days after the record date for the meeting (in the case of the update and supplement required to be made as of the record date), and not later than eight (8) business days prior to the date for the meeting or, if practicable, any adjournment or postponement thereof (and, if not practicable, on the first practicable date prior to the date to which the meeting has been adjourned or postponed) (in the case of the update and supplement required to be made as of ten (10) business days prior to the meeting or any adjournment or postponement thereof).
(g)    Notwithstanding anything in these Bylaws to the contrary, no business shall be conducted at an annual meeting except in accordance with this Section 2.4. The presiding officer of an annual meeting shall determine that the business was not properly brought before the meeting in accordance with this Section 2.4, and if he or she should so determine, he or she shall so declare to the meeting and any such business not properly brought before the meeting shall not be transacted.
(h)    Except as otherwise provided herein, this Section 2.4 is expressly intended to apply to any business proposed to be brought before an annual meeting of stockholders. In addition to the requirements of this Section 2.4 with respect to any business proposed to be brought before an annual meeting, each Proposing Person shall comply with all applicable requirements of the Exchange Act with respect to any such business. Nothing in this Section 2.4 shall be deemed to affect the rights of stockholders to request inclusion of proposals in the Corporation’s proxy statement pursuant to Rule 14a-8 under the Exchange Act.
(i)    For purposes of these Bylaws, “public disclosure” shall mean disclosure in a press release reported by a national news service or in a document publicly filed by the Corporation with the Securities and Exchange Commission pursuant to Sections 13, 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act.
2.5    ADVANCE NOTICE PROCEDURES FOR NOMINATIONS OF DIRECTORS.
(a)    (1)    Nominations of any person for election to the Board at an annual meeting may be made at such meeting only (i) by or at the direction of the Board, including by any committee or persons appointed by the Board, or (ii) by a stockholder who (A) was a stockholder of record of the Corporation (and, with respect to any beneficial owner, if different, on whose behalf such nomination is proposed to be made, only if such beneficial owner was the beneficial owner of shares of the Corporation) both at the time of giving the notice provided for in this Section 2.5 and at the time of the meeting, (B) is entitled to vote at the meeting, (C) has complied with this Section 2.5 as to such nomination or (D) with respect to director nominations for inclusion in the Corporation’s proxy statement, has complied with the requirements and procedures set forth in Section 2.17. The foregoing clause (ii) shall

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be the exclusive means for a stockholder to make any nomination of a person or persons for election to the Board to be considered by the stockholders at an annual meeting.
(a)(2)     Nominations of any person for election to the Board at a special meeting (but only if the election of directors is a matter specified in the notice of meeting given by or at the direction of the person properly calling such special meeting) may be made at such meeting only (i) by or at the direction of the Board, including by any committee or persons appointed by the Board, or (ii) by a stockholder who (A) was a stockholder of record of the Corporation (and, with respect to any beneficial owner, if different, on whose behalf such nomination is proposed to be made, only if such beneficial owner was the beneficial owner of shares of the Corporation) both at the time of giving the notice provided for in this Section 2.5 and at the time of the meeting, (B) is entitled to vote at the meeting, and (C) has complied with this Section 2.5 as to such nomination. The foregoing clause (ii) shall be the exclusive means for a stockholder to make any nomination of a person or persons for election to the Board to be considered by the stockholders at a special meeting.
(b)    For a stockholder to make any nomination of a person or persons for election to the Board at an annual meeting, the stockholder must (i) provide Timely Notice (as defined in these Bylaws) thereof in writing and in proper form to the Secretary of the Corporation, and (ii) provide any updates or supplements to such notice at the times and in the forms required by this Section 2.5. If the election of directors is a matter specified in the notice of meeting given by or at the direction of the person properly calling such special meeting, then for a stockholder to make any nomination of a person or persons for election to the Board at a special meeting, the stockholder must (i) provide Timely Notice thereof in writing and in proper form to the Secretary of the Corporation at the principal executive offices of the Corporation and (ii) provide any updates or supplements to such notice at the times and in the forms required by this Section 2.5. To be timely, a stockholder’s notice for nominations to be made at a special meeting must be delivered to, or mailed and received at, the principal executive offices of the Corporation not earlier than the one hundred twentieth (120th) day prior to such special meeting and not later than the ninetieth (90th) day prior to such special meeting or, if later, the tenth (10th) day following the day on which public disclosure (as defined in these Bylaws) of the date of such special meeting was first made. In no event shall any adjournment or postponement of an annual meeting or special meeting or the announcement thereof commence a new time period for the giving of a stockholder’s notice as described above.
(c)    To be in proper form for purposes of this Section 2.5, a stockholder’s notice to the Secretary shall set forth:
(i)    as to each Nominating Person (as defined below), the Stockholder Information (as defined in these Bylaws) except that for purposes of this Section 2.5, the term “Nominating Person” shall be substituted for the term “Proposing Person” in all places it appears in Section 2.4(c)(i);
(ii)    as to each Nominating Person, any Disclosable Interests (as defined in these Bylaws), except that for purposes of this Section 2.5 the term “Nominating Person” shall be substituted for the term “Proposing Person” in all places it appears in Section 2.4(c)(ii) and the disclosure in clause (L) of Section 2.4(c)(ii) shall be made with respect to the election of directors at the meeting);
(iii)    as to each person whom a Nominating Person proposes to nominate for election as a director, (A) all information with respect to such proposed nominee that would be required to be set forth in a stockholder’s notice pursuant to this Section 2.5 if such proposed nominee were a Nominating Person, (B) all information relating to such proposed nominee that is required to be disclosed

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in a proxy statement or other filings required to be made in connection with solicitations of proxies for election of directors in a contested election pursuant to Section 14(a) under the Exchange Act (including such proposed nominee’s written consent to being named in the proxy statement as a nominee and to serving as a director if elected), (C) a description of all direct and indirect compensation and other material monetary agreements, arrangements and understandings during the past three (3) years, and any other material relationships, between or among any Nominating Person, on the one hand, and each proposed nominee, his or her respective affiliates and associates and any other persons with whom such proposed nominee (or any of his or her respective affiliates and associates) is Acting in Concert (as defined in these Bylaws), on the other hand, including, without limitation, all information that would be required to be disclosed pursuant to Item 404 under Regulation S-K if such Nominating Person were the “registrant” for purposes of such rule and the proposed nominee were a director or executive officer of such registrant (the disclosures to be made pursuant to the foregoing clauses (A) through (C) are referred to as “Nominee Information”), and (D) a completed and signed questionnaire, representation and agreement as provided in Section 2.5(g); and
(iv)    the Corporation may require any proposed nominee to furnish such other information (A) as may reasonably be required by the Corporation to determine the eligibility of such proposed nominee to serve as an independent director of the Corporation in accordance with the Corporation’s Corporate Governance Guidelines or (B) that could be material to a reasonable stockholder’s understanding of the independence or lack of independence of such proposed nominee.
(d)    For purposes of Section 2.5 and Section 2.17, the term “Nominating Person shall mean (i) the stockholder providing the notice of the nomination proposed to be made at the meeting, (ii) the beneficial owner or beneficial owners, if different, on whose behalf the notice of the nomination proposed to be made at the meeting is made, (iii) any affiliate or associate of such stockholder or beneficial owner and (iv) any other person with whom such stockholder or such beneficial owner (or any of their respective affiliates or associates) is Acting in Concert.
(e)    A stockholder providing notice of any nomination proposed to be made at a meeting shall further update and supplement such notice, if necessary, so that the information provided or required to be provided in such notice pursuant to this Section 2.5 shall be true and correct as of the record date for the meeting and as of the date that is ten (10) business days prior to the meeting or any adjournment or postponement thereof, and such update and supplement shall be delivered to, or mailed and received by, the Secretary at the principal executive offices of the Corporation not later than five (5) business days after the record date for the meeting (in the case of the update and supplement required to be made as of the record date), and not later than eight (8) business days prior to the date for the meeting or, if practicable, any adjournment or postponement thereof (and, if not practicable, on the first practicable date prior to the date to which the meeting has been adjourned or postponed) (in the case of the update and supplement required to be made as of ten (10) business days prior to the meeting or any adjournment or postponement thereof).
(f)    Notwithstanding anything in these Bylaws to the contrary, no person shall be eligible for election as a director of the Corporation unless (i) nominated in accordance with the procedures set forth in this Section 2.5, and (ii) with respect to director nominations for inclusion in the Corporation’s proxy statement, in accordance with the procedures set forth in Section 2.17. The presiding officer at the meeting shall, if the facts warrant, determine that a nomination was not properly made in accordance with this Section 2.5, and if he or she should so determine, he or she shall so declare such determination to the meeting and the defective nomination shall be disregarded.

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(g)    To be eligible to be a nominee for election as a director of the Corporation, the proposed nominee must deliver (in accordance with the time periods prescribed for delivery of notice under this Section 2.5) to the Secretary at the principal executive offices of the Corporation a written questionnaire with respect to the background and qualification of such proposed nominee (which questionnaire shall be provided by the Secretary upon written request) and a written representation and agreement (in form provided by the Secretary upon written request) that such proposed nominee (i) is not and will not become a party to (x) any agreement, arrangement or understanding with, and has not given any commitment or assurance to, any person or entity as to how such proposed nominee, if elected as a director of the Corporation, will act or vote on any issue or question (a “Voting Commitment”) that has not been disclosed to the Corporation or (y) any Voting Commitment that could limit or interfere with such proposed nominee’s ability to comply, if elected as a director of the Corporation, with such proposed nominee’s fiduciary duties under applicable law, (ii) is not, and will not become a party to, any agreement, arrangement or understanding with any person or entity other than the Corporation with respect to any direct or indirect compensation, reimbursement or indemnification in connection with service or action as a director that has not been disclosed to the Corporation and (iii) in such proposed nominee’s individual capacity and on behalf of the stockholder (or the beneficial owner, if different) on whose behalf the nomination is made, would be in compliance, if elected as a director of the Corporation, and will comply with applicable publicly disclosed corporate governance, conflict of interest, confidentiality and stock ownership and trading policies and guidelines of the Corporation.
(h)    In addition to the requirements of this Section 2.5 with respect to any nomination proposed to be made at a meeting, each Proposing Person shall comply with all applicable requirements of the Exchange Act with respect to any such nominations.
2.6    NOTICE OF STOCKHOLDERS’ MEETINGS.
Unless otherwise provided by law, the Certificate of Incorporation or these Bylaws, the notice of any meeting of stockholders shall be sent or otherwise given in accordance with either Section 2.7 or Section 8.1 of these Bylaws not less than ten (10) nor more than sixty (60) days before the date of the meeting to each stockholder entitled to vote at such meeting. The notice shall specify the place, if any, date and hour of the meeting, the means of remote communication, if any, by which stockholders and proxy holders may be deemed to be present in person and vote at such meeting, and, in the case of a special meeting, the purpose or purposes for which the meeting is called.
2.7    MANNER OF GIVING NOTICE; AFFIDAVIT OF NOTICE.
Notice of any meeting of stockholders shall be deemed given:
(a)    if mailed, when deposited in the United States mail, postage prepaid, directed to the stockholder at his or her address as it appears on the Corporation’s records; or
(b)    if electronically transmitted as provided in Section 8.1 of these Bylaws.
An affidavit of the Secretary or an Assistant Secretary of the Corporation or of the transfer agent or any other agent of the Corporation that the notice has been given by mail or by a form of electronic transmission, as applicable, shall, in the absence of fraud, be prima facie evidence of the facts stated therein.

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2.8    QUORUM.
Unless otherwise provided by law, the Certificate of Incorporation or these Bylaws, the holders of a majority in voting power of the stock issued and outstanding and entitled to vote, present in person or represented by proxy, shall constitute a quorum for the transaction of business at all meetings of the stockholders. If, however, such quorum is not present or represented at any meeting of the stockholders, then either (a) the chairperson of the meeting or (b) a majority in voting power of the stockholders entitled to vote at the meeting, present in person or represented by proxy, shall have power to adjourn the meeting from time to time in the manner provided in Section 2.9 of these Bylaws until a quorum is present or represented. At such adjourned meeting at which a quorum is present or represented, any business may be transacted that might have been transacted at the meeting as originally noticed.
2.9    ADJOURNED MEETING; NOTICE.
Notwithstanding Section 2.8 of these Bylaws, (a) the chairperson of the meeting or (b) the Secretary of the Corporation upon direction of the Board pursuant to a resolution adopted by a majority of the entire Board may adjourn a meeting from time to time for any reason in accordance with this Section 2.9. When a meeting is adjourned to another time or place, unless these Bylaws otherwise require, notice need not be given of the adjourned meeting if the time, place, if any, thereof, and the means of remote communications, if any, by which stockholders and proxy holders may be deemed to be present in person and vote at such adjourned meeting are announced at the meeting at which the adjournment is taken. At the adjourned meeting, the Corporation may transact any business which might have been transacted at the original meeting. If the adjournment is for more than thirty (30) days, or if after the adjournment a new record date is fixed for the adjourned meeting, a notice of the adjourned meeting shall be given to each stockholder of record entitled to vote at the meeting.
2.10    CONDUCT OF BUSINESS.
The chairperson of any meeting of stockholders shall determine the order of business and the procedure at the meeting, including regulation of the manner of voting and the conduct of business.
2.11    VOTING.
The stockholders entitled to vote at any meeting of stockholders shall be determined in accordance with the provisions of Section 2.13 of these Bylaws, subject to Section 217 (relating to voting rights of fiduciaries, pledgors` and joint owners of stock) and Section 218 (relating to voting trusts and other voting agreements) of the DGCL.
Except as may be otherwise provided in the Certificate of Incorporation or these Bylaws in respect of any class or series of non-voting stock, each stockholder shall be entitled to one (1) vote for each share of capital stock held by such stockholder.
At all meetings of stockholders for the election of directors at which a quorum is present a plurality of the votes cast shall be sufficient to elect a director. All other elections and questions presented to the stockholders at a meeting at which a quorum is present shall, unless otherwise provided by the Certificate of Incorporation, these Bylaws, the rules or regulations of any stock exchange applicable to the Corporation, or applicable law or pursuant to any regulation applicable to the Corporation or its securities, be decided by the affirmative vote of the holders of a majority in voting power of the shares of stock of the Corporation which are present in person or by proxy and entitled to vote thereon.

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2.12    STOCKHOLDER ACTION BY WRITTEN CONSENT WITHOUT A MEETING.
Subject to the rights of the holders of the shares of any series of Preferred Stock, any action required or permitted to be taken by the stockholders of the Corporation must be effected only at a duly called annual or special meeting of such stockholders and may not be effected by any written consent in lieu of a meeting by such stockholders.
2.13    RECORD DATE FOR STOCKHOLDER NOTICE; VOTING; GIVING CONSENTS.
In order that the Corporation may determine the stockholders entitled to notice of or to vote at any meeting of stockholders or any adjournment thereof, or entitled to receive payment of any dividend or other distribution or allotment of any rights, or entitled to exercise any rights in respect of any change, conversion or exchange of stock or for the purpose of any other lawful action, the Board may fix, in advance, a record date, which record date shall not precede the date on which the resolution fixing the record date is adopted and which shall not be more than sixty (60) nor less than ten (10) days before the date of such meeting, nor more than sixty (60) days prior to any other such action.
If the Board does not so fix a record date:
(i)    The record date for determining stockholders entitled to notice of or to vote at a meeting of stockholders shall be at the close of business on the day next preceding the day on which notice is given, or, if notice is waived, at the close of business on the day next preceding the day on which the meeting is held.
(ii)    The record date for determining stockholders for any other purpose shall be at the close of business on the day on which the Board adopts the resolution relating thereto.
A determination of stockholders of record entitled to notice of or to vote at a meeting of stockholders shall apply to any adjournment of the meeting; provided, however, that the Board may fix a new record date for the adjourned meeting.
2.14    PROXIES.
Each stockholder entitled to vote at a meeting of stockholders may authorize another person or persons to act for such stockholder by proxy authorized by an instrument in writing or by a transmission permitted by law filed in accordance with the procedure established for the meeting, but no such proxy shall be voted or acted upon after three (3) years from its date, unless the proxy provides for a longer period. The revocability of a proxy that states on its face that it is irrevocable shall be governed by the provisions of Section 212 of the DGCL. A proxy may be in the form of a telegram, cablegram or other means of electronic transmission which sets forth or is submitted with information from which it can be determined that the telegram, cablegram or other means of electronic transmission was authorized by the stockholder.
2.15    LIST OF STOCKHOLDERS ENTITLED TO VOTE.
The officer who has charge of the stock ledger of the Corporation shall prepare and make, at least ten (10) days before every meeting of stockholders, a complete list of the stockholders entitled to vote at the meeting, arranged in alphabetical order, and showing the address of each stockholder and the number of shares registered in the name of each stockholder. The Corporation shall not be required to include electronic mail addresses or other electronic contact information on such list. Such list shall be open to the examination of any stockholder, for any purpose germane to the meeting for a period of

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at least ten (10) days prior to the meeting: (i) on a reasonably accessible electronic network, provided that the information required to gain access to such list is provided with the notice of the meeting, or (ii) during ordinary business hours, at the Corporation’s principal executive office. In the event that the Corporation determines to make the list available on an electronic network, the Corporation may take reasonable steps to ensure that such information is available only to stockholders of the Corporation. If the meeting is to be held at a place, then the list shall be produced and kept at the time and place of the meeting during the whole time thereof, and may be inspected by any stockholder who is present. If the meeting is to be held solely by means of remote communication, then the list shall also be open to the examination of any stockholder during the whole time of the meeting on a reasonably accessible electronic network, and the information required to access such list shall be provided with the notice of the meeting. Such list shall presumptively determine the identity of the stockholders entitled to vote at the meeting and the number of shares held by each of them.
2.16    INSPECTORS OF ELECTION.
Before any meeting of stockholders, the Board shall appoint an inspector or inspectors of election to act at the meeting or its adjournment and make a written report thereof. The number of inspectors shall be either one (1) or three (3). If any person appointed as inspector fails to appear or fails or refuses to act, then the chairperson of the meeting may, and upon the request of any stockholder or a stockholder’s proxy shall, appoint a person to fill that vacancy.
Such inspectors shall:
(a)    determine the number of shares outstanding and the voting power of each, the number of shares represented at the meeting, the existence of a quorum, and the authenticity, validity, and effect of proxies;
(b)    receive votes or ballots;
(c)    hear and determine all challenges and questions in any way arising in connection with the right to vote;
(d)    count and tabulate all votes;
(e)    determine the result; and
(f)    do any other acts that may be proper to conduct the election or vote with fairness to all stockholders.
The inspectors of election shall perform their duties impartially, in good faith, to the best of their ability and as expeditiously as is practical. If there are three (3) inspectors of election, the decision, act or certificate of a majority is effective in all respects as the decision, act or certificate of all. Any report or certificate made by the inspectors of election is prima facie evidence of the facts stated therein.
2.17    STOCKHOLDER NOMINATIONS INCLUDED IN THE CORPORATION’S PROXY MATERIALS.
(a)    Subject to the provisions of this Section 2.17, if expressly requested in the relevant Nomination Notice (as defined below), the Corporation shall include in its proxy statement for any annual meeting of stockholders (but not at any special meeting of stockholders): (i) the name of any person nominated for election (the “Stockholder Nominee”), which shall also be included on the

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Corporation’s form of proxy and ballot, by any Eligible Stockholder (as defined below) or group of up to twenty (20) Eligible Stockholders that, as determined by the Board or its designee acting in good faith, has (individually and collectively, in the case of a group) satisfied all applicable conditions and complied with all applicable procedures set forth in this Section 2.17 (such Eligible Stockholder or group of Eligible Stockholders being a “Nominating Person”); (ii) disclosure about the Stockholder Nominee and the Nominating Person required under the rules of the Securities and Exchange Commission or other applicable law to be included in the proxy statement; (iii) any statement included by the Nominating Person in the Nomination Notice for inclusion in the proxy statement in support of the Stockholder Nominee’s election to the Board (subject, without limitation, to Section 2.17(k)), provided that such statement does not exceed 500 words; and (iv) any other information that the Corporation or the Board determines, in their discretion, to include in the proxy statement relating to the nomination of the Stockholder Nominee, including, without limitation, any statement in opposition to the nomination and any of the information provided pursuant to this Section 2.17.
(b)    The Corporation shall not be required to include in the proxy statement for an annual meeting of stockholders more Stockholder Nominees than that number of directors constituting 20% of the total number of directors of the Corporation on the last day on which a Nomination Notice may be submitted pursuant to this Section 2.17 (rounded down to the nearest whole number), but not less than two (the “Maximum Number”). The Maximum Number for a particular annual meeting shall be reduced by: (i) Stockholder Nominees whose nominations are subsequently withdrawn; (ii) Stockholder Nominees who the Board itself decides to nominate for election at such annual meeting and (iii) the number of incumbent directors who had been Stockholder Nominees at any of the preceding two annual meetings of stockholders and whose reelection at the upcoming annual meeting of stockholders is being recommended by the Board. In the event that one or more vacancies for any reason occurs on the Board after the deadline set forth in Section 2.17(i) but before the date of the annual meeting of stockholders and the Board resolves to reduce the size of the Board in connection therewith, the Maximum Number shall be calculated based on the number of directors in office as so reduced.
(c)    If the number of Stockholder Nominees pursuant to this Section 2.17 for any annual meeting of stockholders exceeds the Maximum Number then, promptly upon notice from the Corporation, each Nominating Person will select one Stockholder Nominee for inclusion in the proxy statement until the Maximum Number is reached, going in order of the amount (largest to smallest) of the total voting power of all outstanding shares of the Corporation’s voting stock that each Nominating Person disclosed as owned in its Nomination Notice, with the process repeated if the Maximum Number is not reached after each Nominating Person has selected one Stockholder Nominee. If, after the deadline for submitting a Nomination Notice as set forth in Section 2.17(i), a Nominating Person becomes ineligible or withdraws its nomination or a Stockholder Nominee becomes unwilling to serve on the Board, whether before or after the mailing of the definitive proxy statement, then the Corporation: (i) shall not be required to include in its proxy statement or on any ballot or form of proxy the Stockholder Nominee or any successor or replacement nominee proposed by the Nominating Person or by any other Nominating Person and (ii) may otherwise communicate to its stockholders, including without limitation by amending or supplementing its proxy statement or ballot or form of proxy, that the Stockholder Nominee will not be included as a Stockholder Nominee in the proxy statement or on any ballot or form of proxy and will not be voted on at the annual meeting of stockholders.
(d)    An “Eligible Stockholder” is a person who has either (i) been a record holder of the shares of voting stock of the Corporation used to satisfy the eligibility requirements in these Sections 2.17(d)-(h) continuously for the three-year period specified in Section 2.17(e) below or (ii) provides to the Secretary of the Corporation, within the time period referred to in Section 2.17(i), evidence of

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continuous ownership of such shares for such three-year period from one or more securities intermediaries in a form that the Board or its designee, acting in good faith, determines would be deemed acceptable for purposes of a stockholder proposal under Rule 14a-8(b)(2) under the Exchange Act (or any successor rule).
(e)    An Eligible Stockholder or group of up to twenty (20) Eligible Stockholders may submit a nomination in accordance with this Section 2.17 only if the person or group (in the aggregate) has continuously owned at least the Minimum Number (as defined below) (as adjusted for any stock splits, reverse stock splits, stock dividends or similar events) of all outstanding shares of the Corporation’s voting stock throughout the three-year period preceding and including the date of submission of the Nomination Notice, and continues to own at least the Minimum Number of shares through the date of the annual meeting of stockholders. The following shall be treated as one Eligible Stockholder if such Eligible Stockholder shall provide together with the Nomination Notice documentation satisfactory to the Board or its designee, acting in good faith, that demonstrates compliance with the following criteria: (i) funds under common management and investment control; (ii) funds under common management and funded primarily by the same employer; or (iii) a “family of investment companies” or a “group of investment companies” (each as defined in the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended). For the avoidance of doubt, in the event of a nomination by a Nominating Person that includes more than one Eligible Stockholder, any and all requirements and obligations for a given Eligible Stockholder or, except as the context otherwise makes clear, the Nominating Person that are set forth in this Section 2.17, including the minimum holding period, shall apply to each member of such group; provided, however, that the Minimum Number shall apply to the aggregate ownership of the group of Eligible Stockholders constituting the Nominating Person. Should any Eligible Stockholder withdraw from a group of Eligible Stockholders constituting a Nominating Person at any time prior to the annual meeting of stockholders, the Nominating Person shall be deemed to own only the shares held by the remaining Eligible Stockholders. As used in this Section 2.17, any reference to a “group” or “group of Eligible Stockholders” refers to any Nominating Person that consists of more than one Eligible Stockholder and to all the Eligible Stockholders that make up such Nominating Person.
(f)    The “Minimum Number” of shares of the Corporation’s voting stock means 3% of the total voting power of all outstanding shares of voting stock of the Corporation as of the most recent date for which such amount is given in any filing by the Corporation with the Securities and Exchange Commission prior to the submission of the Nomination Notice.
(g)    For purposes of this Section 2.17, an Eligible Stockholder “owns” only those outstanding shares of the Corporation’s voting stock as to which such Eligible Stockholder possesses both: (i) the full voting and investment rights pertaining to such shares and (ii) the full economic interest in (including the opportunity for profit from and the risk of loss on) such shares; provided that the number of shares calculated in accordance with clauses (i) and (ii) shall not include any shares (1) sold by such Eligible Stockholder or any of its affiliates in any transaction that has not been settled or closed, (2) borrowed by such Eligible Stockholder or any of its affiliates for any purpose or purchased by such Eligible Stockholder or any of its affiliates pursuant to an agreement to resell, or (3) subject to any option, warrant, forward contract, swap, contract of sale, other derivative or similar agreement entered into by such Eligible Stockholder or any of its affiliates, whether any such instrument or agreement is to be settled with shares or with cash based on the notional amount or value of outstanding capital stock of Corporation, in any such case which instrument or agreement has, or is intended to have, the purpose or effect of: (x) reducing in any manner, to any extent or at any time in the future, such Eligible Stockholder’s or any of its affiliates’ full right to vote or direct the voting of any such shares, and/or (y) hedging, offsetting, or altering to any degree any gain or loss arising from the full economic ownership

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of such shares by such Eligible Stockholder or any of its affiliates. An Eligible Stockholder “owns” shares held in the name of a nominee or other intermediary so long as the Eligible Stockholder retains the right to instruct how the shares are voted with respect to the election of directors and possesses the full economic interest in the shares. An Eligible Stockholder’s ownership of shares shall be deemed to continue during any period in which the Eligible Stockholder has delegated any voting power by means of a proxy, power of attorney, or other similar instrument or arrangement that is revocable at any time by the Eligible Stockholder. An Eligible Stockholder’s ownership of shares shall be deemed to continue during any period in which the Eligible Stockholder has loaned such shares provided that the Eligible Stockholder has the power to recall such loaned shares on not more than five business days’ notice. The terms “owned,” “owning” and other variations of the word “own” shall have correlative meanings. Whether outstanding shares of the Corporation are “owned” for these purposes shall be determined by the Board or its designee acting in good faith. For purposes of this Section 2.17(g), the term “affiliate” or “affiliates” shall have the meaning ascribed thereto under the General Rules and Regulations under the Exchange Act.
(h)    No Eligible Stockholder shall be permitted to be in more than one group constituting a Nominating Person, and if any Eligible Stockholder appears as a member of more than one group, such Eligible Stockholder shall be deemed to be a member of only the group that has the largest ownership position as reflected in the Nomination Notice.
(i)    To nominate a Stockholder Nominee pursuant to this Section 2.17, the Nominating Person must submit to the Secretary of the Corporation all of the following information and documents in a form that the Board or its designee, acting in good faith, determines acceptable (collectively, the “Nomination Notice”), not less than ninety (90) days nor more than one hundred twenty (120) days prior to the first anniversary of the preceding year’s annual meeting; provided, however, that if (and only if) the date of the annual meeting is more than thirty (30) days before or more than sixty (60) days after such anniversary date (an annual meeting date outside such period being referred to herein as an “Other Meeting Date”), the Nomination Notice to be timely must be so delivered, or mailed and received, not earlier than the one hundred twentieth (120th) day prior to such Other Meeting Date and not later than the ninetieth (90th) day prior to such Other Meeting Date or, if later, the tenth (10th) day following the day on which public disclosure of the date of such Other Meeting Date was first made. In no event shall any adjournment or postponement of an annual meeting or the announcement thereof commence a new time period (or extend any time period) for the giving of the Nomination Notice:
(i)    one or more written statements from the record holder of the shares (and from each intermediary through which the shares are or have been held during the requisite three-year holding period) verifying that, as of a date within seven (7) calendar days prior to the date of the Nomination Notice, the Nominating Person owns, and has continuously owned for the preceding three (3) years, the Minimum Number of shares, and the Nominating Person’s agreement to provide, within five (5) business days after the record date for the annual meeting, written statements from the record holder and intermediaries verifying the Nominating Person’s continuous ownership of the Minimum Number of shares through the record date;
(ii)    an agreement to provide immediate notice if the Nominating Person ceases to own the Minimum Number of shares at any time prior to the date of the annual meeting;
(iii)    a copy of the Schedule 14N (or any successor form) relating to the Stockholder Nominee, completed and filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission by the Nominating Person as applicable, in accordance with Securities and Exchange Commission rules;

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(iv)    the written consent of each Stockholder Nominee to being named in the Corporation’s proxy statement, form of proxy and ballot as a nominee and to serving as a director if elected;
(v)    a written notice of the nomination of such Stockholder Nominee that includes the following additional information, agreements, representations and warranties by the Nominating Person (including, for the avoidance of doubt, each group member in the case of a Nominating Person consisting of a group of Eligible Stockholders): (A) the information that would be required to be set forth in a stockholder’s notice of nomination pursuant to Section 2.5; (B) the details of any relationship that existed within the past three years and that would have been described pursuant to Item 6(e) of Schedule 14N (or any successor item) if it existed on the date of submission of the Schedule 14N; (C) a representation and warranty that the Nominating Person did not acquire, and is not holding, securities of the Corporation for the purpose or with the effect of influencing or changing control of the Corporation; (D) a representation and warranty that the Nominating Person has not nominated and will not nominate for election to the Board at the annual meeting any person other than such Nominating Person’s Stockholder Nominee(s); (E) a representation and warranty that the Nominating Person has not engaged in and will not engage in a “solicitation” within the meaning of Rule 14a-1(l) under the Exchange Act (without reference to the exception in Section 14a-(l)(2)(iv)) with respect to the annual meeting, other than with respect to such Nominating Person’s Stockholder Nominee(s) or any nominee of the Board); (F) a representation and warranty that the Nominating Person will not use any form of proxy other than the Corporation’s form of proxy in soliciting stockholders in connection with the election of a Stockholder Nominee at the annual meeting; (G) a representation and warranty that the Stockholder Nominee’s candidacy or, if elected, board membership would not violate applicable state or federal law or any stock exchange rules applicable to the Corporation; (H) a representation and warranty that the Stockholder Nominee: (a) does not have any direct or indirect relationship with the Corporation that will cause the Stockholder Nominee to be deemed not independent pursuant to the Corporation’s Corporate Governance Guidelines and otherwise qualifies as independent under the Corporation’s Corporate Governance Guidelines, the Securities and Exchange Commission rules and any stock exchange rules applicable to the Corporation; (b) meets the audit committee independence requirements under any stock exchange rules applicable to the Corporation; (c) is a “non-employee director” for the purposes of Rule 16b-3 under the Exchange Act (or any successor rule); (d) is an “outside director” for the purposes of Section 162(m) of the Internal Revenue Code (or any successor provision); (e) is not and has not been subject to any event specified in Rule 506(d)(1) of Regulation D (or any successor rule) under the Securities Act of 1933 or Item 401(f) of Regulation S-K (or any successor rule) under the Exchange Act, without reference to whether the event is material to an evaluation of the ability or integrity of the Stockholder Nominee; and (f) meets the director qualifications set forth in the Corporation’s Corporate Governance Guidelines; (I) a representation and warranty that the Nominating Person satisfies the eligibility requirements set forth in Sections 2.17(d)-(h); (J) a representation and warranty that the Nominating Person will continue to satisfy the eligibility requirements described in Sections 2.17(d)-(h) through the date of the annual meeting; (K) a representation as to the Nominating Person’s intentions with respect to continuing to hold the Minimum Number of shares for at least one year following the annual meeting; (L) details of any position of the Stockholder Nominee as an officer or director of any competitor (that is, any entity that produces products or provides services that compete with or are alternatives to the principal products produced or services provided by the Corporation or its affiliates) of the Corporation, within the three years preceding the submission of the Nomination Notice; (M) if desired, a statement for inclusion in the proxy statement in support of the Stockholder Nominee’s election to the Board, provided that such statement shall not exceed 500 words and shall comply with Section 14 of the Exchange Act and the rules and regulations thereunder; and (N) in the case of a nomination by a Nominating Person comprised of a group, the designation by all Eligible

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Stockholders in such group of one Eligible Stockholder that is authorized to act on behalf of the Nominating Person with respect to matters relating to the nomination, including withdrawal of the nomination;
(vi)    an executed agreement pursuant to which the Nominating Person (including in the case of a group, each Eligible Stockholder in that group) agrees: (A) to comply with all applicable laws, rules and regulations in connection with the nomination, solicitation and election; (B) to file any written solicitation or other communication with the Corporation’s stockholders relating to one or more of the Corporation’s directors or director nominees or any Stockholder Nominee with the Securities and Exchange Commission, regardless of whether any such filing is required under any rule or regulation or whether any exemption from filing is available for such materials under any rule or regulation; (C) to assume all liability stemming from an action, suit or proceeding concerning any legal or regulatory violation arising out of any communication by the Nominating Person or the Stockholder Nominee nominated by such Nominating Person with the Corporation, its stockholders or any other person in connection with the nomination or election of directors, including, without limitation, the Nomination Notice; (D) to indemnify and hold harmless (jointly with all other group members, in the case of a group member) the Corporation and each of its directors, officers and employees individually against any liability, loss, damages, expenses or other costs (including attorneys’ fees) incurred in connection with any threatened or pending action, suit or proceeding, whether legal, administrative or investigative, against the Corporation or any of its directors, officers or employees arising out of or relating to a failure or alleged failure of the Nominating Person or Stockholder Nominee to comply with, or any breach or alleged breach of, its, or his or her, as applicable, obligations, agreements or representations under this Section 2.17; (E) in the event that any information included in the Nomination Notice, or any other communication by the Nominating Person (including with respect to any Eligible Stockholder included in a group) with the Corporation, its stockholders or any other person in connection with the nomination or election ceases to be true and accurate in all material respects (or due to a subsequent development omits a material fact necessary to make the statements made not misleading), to promptly (and in any event within 48 hours of discovering such misstatement or omission) notify the Corporation and any other recipient of such communication of the misstatement or omission in such previously provided information and of the information that is required to correct the misstatement or omission; and (F) in the event that the Nominating Person (including any Eligible Stockholder included in a group) has failed to continue to satisfy the eligibility requirements described in Sections 2.17(d)-(h), to promptly notify the Corporation; and
(vii)    an executed agreement by the Stockholder Nominee: (A) to provide to the Corporation such other information, including completion of the Corporation’s director questionnaire, as the Board or its designee, acting in good faith, may request; (B) that the Stockholder Nominee has read and agrees, if elected, to serve as a member of the Board, to adhere to the Corporation’s Corporate Governance Guidelines, Code of Business Conduct and Ethics and any other corporate policies and guidelines applicable to directors; and (C) that the Stockholder Nominee is not and will not become a party to (a) any compensatory, payment or other financial agreement, arrangement or understanding with any person or entity in connection with such person’s nomination, candidacy, service or action as director of the Corporation that has not been fully disclosed to the Corporation prior to or concurrently with the Nominating Person’s submission of the Nomination Notice, (b) any agreement, arrangement or understanding with any person or entity as to how the Stockholder Nominee would vote or act on any issue or question as a director (a “Voting Commitment”) that has not been fully disclosed to the Corporation prior to or concurrently with the Nominating Person’s submission of the Nomination Notice or (c) any Voting Commitment that could limit or interfere with the Nominee’s ability to comply, if elected as a director of the Corporation, with his or her fiduciary duties under applicable law.

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The information and documents required by this Section 2.17(i) shall be (1) provided with respect to and executed by each Eligible Stockholder in the group in the case of a Nominating Person comprised of a group of Eligible Stockholders; and (2) provided with respect to the persons specified in Instructions 1 and 2 to Items 6(c) and (d) of Schedule 14N (or any successor item) (a) in the case of a Nominating Person that is an entity and (b) in the case of a Nominating Person that is a group that includes one or more Eligible Stockholders that are entities. The Nomination Notice shall be deemed submitted on the date on which all of the information and documents referred to in this Section 2.17(i) (other than such information and documents contemplated to be provided after the date the Nomination Notice is provided) have been delivered to or, if sent by mail, received by the Secretary of the Corporation.
(j)    Notwithstanding anything to the contrary contained in this Section 2.17, the Corporation may omit from its proxy statement any Stockholder Nominee and any information concerning such Stockholder Nominee (including a Nominating Person’s statement in support) and no vote on such Stockholder Nominee will occur (notwithstanding that proxies in respect of such vote may have been received by the Corporation), and the Nominating Person may not, after the last day on which a Nomination Notice would be timely, cure in any way any defect preventing the nomination of the Stockholder Nominee, if: (i) the Corporation receives a notice that a stockholder intends to nominate a candidate for director at the annual meeting pursuant to the advance notice requirements set forth in Section 2.5 without such stockholder’s notice expressly electing to have such director candidate(s) included in the Corporation’s proxy statement pursuant to this Section 2.17; (ii) the Nominating Person (or, in the case of a Nominating Person consisting of a group of Eligible Stockholders, the Eligible Stockholder that is authorized to act on behalf of the Nominating Person), or any qualified representative thereof, does not appear at the annual meeting to present the nomination submitted pursuant to this Section 2.17 or the Nominating Person withdraws its nomination; (iii) the Board or its designee, acting in good faith, determines that such Stockholder Nominee’s nomination or election to the Board would result in the Corporation violating or failing to be in compliance with these Bylaws or the Certificate of Incorporation or any applicable law, rule or regulation to which the Corporation is subject, including any stock exchange rules applicable to the Corporation; (iv) the Stockholder Nominee was nominated for election to the Board pursuant to this Section 2.17 at one of the Corporation’s two preceding annual meetings of stockholders and either withdrew from or became ineligible or unavailable for election at such annual meeting or received a vote of less than 25% of the total voting power of all outstanding shares of voting stock entitled to vote for such Stockholder Nominee; (v) the Stockholder Nominee has been, within the past three years, an officer or director of a competitor, as defined for purposes of Section 8 of the Clayton Antitrust Act of 1914, as amended; or (vi) the Corporation is notified, or the Board or its designee acting in good faith determines, that a Nominating Person has failed to continue to satisfy the eligibility requirements described in Sections 2.17(d)-(h), any of the representations and warranties made in the Nomination Notice ceases to be true and accurate in all material respects (or omits a material fact necessary to make the statement made not misleading), the Stockholder Nominee becomes unwilling or unable to serve on the Board or any material violation or breach occurs of any of the obligations, agreements, representations or warranties of the Nominating Person or the Stockholder Nominee under this Section 2.17.
(k)    Notwithstanding anything to the contrary contained in this Section 2.17, the Corporation may omit from its proxy statement, or may supplement or correct, any information, including all or any portion of the statement in support of the Stockholder Nominee included in the Nomination Notice, if the Board or its designee in good faith determines that: (i) such information is not true in all material respects or omits a material statement necessary to make the statements made not misleading; (ii) the inclusion of such information in the proxy statement would otherwise violate the Securities and Exchange Commission proxy rules or any other applicable law, rule or regulation or would be excludable

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by the Corporation under the rules and regulations of the Securities Exchange Commission if submitted as part of a shareholder proposal for inclusion in a proxy statement or (iii) the inclusion of such information in the proxy statement would impose a material risk of liability upon the Corporation.
The Corporation may solicit against, and include in the proxy statement its own statement relating to, any Stockholder Nominee.
ARTICLE III    
DIRECTORS
3.1    POWERS.
Subject to the provisions of the DGCL and any limitations in the Certificate of Incorporation or these Bylaws relating to action required to be approved by the stockholders or by the outstanding shares, the business and affairs of the Corporation shall be managed and all corporate powers shall be exercised by or under the direction of the Board. A Lead Director (as defined below) may be selected by the independent directors from among the directors who are not current or former executive officers of the Corporation and are otherwise independent. The “Lead Director” shall perform such duties as may be assigned to the Lead Director by the Board of Directors and not inconsistent with these Bylaws.
3.2    NUMBER OF DIRECTORS.
The authorized number of directors shall be determined from time to time by resolution of the Board; provided, however, that the Board shall consist of at least one (1) member. No reduction of the authorized number of directors shall have the effect of removing any director before that director’s term of office expires.
3.3    ELECTION, QUALIFICATION AND TERM OF OFFICE OF DIRECTORS.
Except as provided in Section 3.4 of these Bylaws, each director, including a director elected to fill a vacancy, shall hold office until the expiration of the term for which elected and until such director’s successor is elected and qualified or until such director’s earlier death, resignation or removal. Directors need not be stockholders unless so required by the Certificate of Incorporation or these Bylaws. Notwithstanding anything to the contrary in these Bylaws, the number of Non-Citizens (as defined in Article X below) who can hold office shall at no time exceed the limitations provided under Act (as defined in Article X below) (which, as of the effective time of these Bylaws and for informational purposes only, is one-third (1/3) of the total number of members then holding office). The Certificate of Incorporation or these Bylaws may prescribe other qualifications for directors.
RESIGNATION AND VACANCIES.
Any director may resign at any time upon notice given in writing or by electronic transmission to the Corporation. Unless otherwise provided in the Certificate of Incorporation or these Bylaws, vacancies and newly created directorships resulting from any increase in the authorized number of directors shall, unless the Board determines by resolution that any such vacancies or newly created directorships shall be filled by stockholders, be filled only by a majority of the directors then in office, although less than a quorum, or by a sole remaining director. Any director elected in accordance with the preceding sentence shall hold office for the remainder of the full term of the director for which the vacancy was created or occurred and until such director’s successor shall have been elected and qualified.

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A vacancy in the Board of Directors shall be deemed to exist under these Bylaws in the case of the death, removal or resignation of any director.
3.4    PLACE OF MEETINGS; MEETINGS BY TELEPHONE.
The Board may hold meetings, both regular and special, either within or outside the State of Delaware.
Unless otherwise restricted by the Certificate of Incorporation or these Bylaws, members of the Board, or any committee designated by the Board, may participate in a meeting of the Board, or any committee, by means of conference telephone or other communications equipment by means of which all persons participating in the meeting can hear each other, and such participation in a meeting pursuant to this Bylaw shall constitute presence in person at the meeting.
3.5    REGULAR MEETINGS.
Regular meetings of the Board may be held without notice at such time and at such place as shall from time to time be determined by the Board.
3.6    SPECIAL MEETINGS; NOTICE.
Special meetings of the Board for any purpose or purposes may be called at any time by the chairperson of the Board, the chief executive officer, the president, the secretary or a majority of the authorized number of directors.
Notice of the time and place of special meetings shall be:
(a)    delivered personally by hand, by courier or by telephone;
(b)    sent by United States first-class mail, postage prepaid;
(c)    sent by facsimile; or
(d)    sent by electronic mail,
directed to each director at that director’s address, telephone number, facsimile number or electronic mail address, as the case may be, as shown on the Corporation’s records.
If the notice is (a) delivered personally by hand, by courier or by telephone, (b) sent by facsimile or (c) sent by electronic mail, it shall be delivered or sent at least twenty-four (24) hours before the time of the holding of the meeting. If the notice is sent by United States mail, it shall be deposited in the United States mail at least four (4) days before the time of the holding of the meeting. The notice need not specify the purpose of the meeting.
3.7    QUORUM.
At all meetings of the Board, a majority of the authorized number of directors shall constitute a quorum for the transaction of business. The vote of a majority of the directors present at any meeting at which a quorum is present shall be the act of the Board, except as may be otherwise specifically provided by statute, the Certificate of Incorporation or these Bylaws. If a quorum is not present at any

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meeting of the Board, then the directors present thereat may adjourn the meeting from time to time, without notice other than announcement at the meeting, until a quorum is present.
A meeting at which a quorum is initially present may continue to transact business notwithstanding the withdrawal of directors, if any action taken is approved by at least a majority of the required quorum for that meeting.
3.8    BOARD ACTION BY WRITTEN CONSENT WITHOUT A MEETING.
Unless otherwise restricted by the Certificate of Incorporation or these Bylaws, any action required or permitted to be taken at any meeting of the Board, or of any committee thereof, may be taken without a meeting if all members of the Board or committee, as the case may be, consent thereto in writing or by electronic transmission and the writing or writings or electronic transmission or transmissions are filed with the minutes of proceedings of the Board or committee. Such filing shall be in paper form if the minutes are maintained in paper form and shall be in electronic form if the minutes are maintained in electronic form.
3.9    FEES AND COMPENSATION OF DIRECTORS.
Unless otherwise restricted by the Certificate of Incorporation or these Bylaws, the Board shall have the authority to fix the compensation of directors.
3.10    REMOVAL OF DIRECTORS.
Except as otherwise provided by the DGCL, the Board of Directors or any individual director may be removed from office at any time with cause by the affirmative vote of the holders of a majority of the voting power of all the then outstanding shares of voting stock of the Corporation entitled to vote at an election of directors (the “Voting Stock”).
No reduction of the authorized number of directors shall have the effect of removing any director prior to the expiration of such director’s term of office.
ARTICLE IV    
COMMITTEES
4.1    COMMITTEES OF DIRECTORS.
The Board may designate one (1) or more committees, each committee to consist of one (1) or more of the directors of the Corporation. The Board may designate one (1) or more directors as alternate members of any committee, who may replace any absent or disqualified member at any meeting of the committee. In the absence or disqualification of a member of a committee, the member or members thereof present at any meeting and not disqualified from voting, whether or not such member or members constitute a quorum, may unanimously appoint another member of the Board to act at the meeting in the place of any such absent or disqualified member. Any such committee, to the extent provided in the resolution of the Board or in these Bylaws, shall have and may exercise all the powers and authority of the Board in the management of the business and affairs of the Corporation, and may authorize the seal of the Corporation to be affixed to all papers that may require it; but no such committee shall have the power or authority to (i) approve or adopt, or recommend to the stockholders, any action or matter expressly required by the DGCL to be submitted to stockholders for approval, or (ii) adopt, amend or repeal any Bylaw of the Corporation. At least two-thirds (2/3) of the members of each committee of the Board shall be comprised of individuals who meet the definition of “a citizen of the United States,”

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as defined by the Transportation Act 49 U.S.C § 40102 or as subsequently amended or interpreted by the Department of Transportation; provided, however, that if a committee of the Board has one (1) member, such member shall be a “a citizen of the United States,” as defined immediately above.
4.2    COMMITTEE MINUTES.
Each committee shall keep regular minutes of its meetings and report the same to the Board when required.
4.3    MEETINGS AND ACTION OF COMMITTEES.
Meetings and actions of committees shall be governed by, and held and taken in accordance with, the provisions of:
(a)    Section 3.5 (place of meetings and meetings by telephone);
(b)    Section 3.6 (regular meetings);
(c)    Section 3.7 (special meetings and notice);
(d)    Section 3.8 (quorum);
(e)    Section 3.9 (action without a meeting); and
(f)    Section 7.13 (waiver of notice),
with such changes in the context of those Bylaws as are necessary to substitute the committee and its members for the Board and its members. However:
(i)    the time of regular meetings of committees may be determined either by resolution of the Board or by resolution of the committee;
(ii)    special meetings of committees may also be called by resolution of the Board; and
(iii)    notice of special meetings of committees shall also be given to all alternate members, who shall have the right to attend all meetings of the committee. The Board may adopt rules for the government of any committee not inconsistent with the provisions of these Bylaws.
ARTICLE V    
OFFICERS
5.1    OFFICERS.
The officers of the Corporation shall be a president and a secretary. The Corporation may also have, at the discretion of the Board, a chairperson of the Board, a vice chairperson of the Board, a chief executive officer, a chief financial officer or treasurer, one (1) or more vice presidents, one (1) or more assistant vice presidents, one (1) or more assistant treasurers, one (1) or more assistant secretaries, and any such other officers as may be appointed in accordance with the provisions of these Bylaws. Any number of offices may be held by the same person.

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5.2    APPOINTMENT OF OFFICERS.
The Board shall appoint the officers of the Corporation, except such officers as may be appointed in accordance with the provisions of Section 5.3 of these Bylaws, subject to the rights, if any, of an officer under any contract of employment.
5.3    SUBORDINATE OFFICERS.
The Board may appoint, or empower the chief executive officer or, in the absence of a chief executive officer, the president, to appoint, such other officers and agents as the business of the Corporation may require. Each of such officers and agents shall hold office for such period, have such authority, and perform such duties as are provided in these Bylaws or as the Board may from time to time determine.
5.4    REMOVAL AND RESIGNATION OF OFFICERS.
Any officer may be removed, either with or without cause, by an affirmative vote of the majority of the Board at any regular or special meeting of the Board or, except in the case of an officer chosen by the Board, by any officer upon whom such power of removal may be conferred by the Board.
Any officer may resign at any time by giving written notice to the Corporation. Any resignation shall take effect at the date of the receipt of that notice or at any later time specified in that notice. Any resignation is without prejudice to the rights, if any, of the Corporation or the officer under any contract to which the officer is a party.
Any removal or resignation of an officer pursuant to this Section 5.4 shall be without prejudice to any rights of the Corporation or such officer pursuant to any contract of employment of such officer.
5.5    VACANCIES IN OFFICES.
Any vacancy occurring in any office of the Corporation shall be filled by the Board or as provided in Section 5.2.
5.6    REPRESENTATION OF SHARES OF OTHER CORPORATIONS.
The chairperson of the Board, the president, any vice president, the treasurer, the secretary or assistant secretary of this Corporation, or any other person authorized by the Board or the president or a vice president, is authorized to vote, represent and exercise on behalf of this Corporation all rights incident to any and all shares of any other corporation or corporations standing in the name of this Corporation. The authority granted herein may be exercised either by such person directly or by any other person authorized to do so by proxy or power of attorney duly executed by such person having the authority.
5.7    AUTHORITY AND DUTIES OF OFFICERS.
All officers of the Corporation shall respectively have such authority and perform such duties in the management of the business of the Corporation as may be designated from time to time by the Board or the stockholders and, to the extent not so provided, as generally pertain to their respective offices, subject to the control of the Board.

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5.8    LIMITATIONS ON NON-CITIZENS AS OFFICERS.
Notwithstanding anything to the contrary in these Bylaws, (a) number of Non-Citizens who can serve as officers shall at no time exceed the limitations provided under the Act (as defined in Article X below) (which, as of the effective time of these Bylaws and for informational purposes only, is one-third (1/3) of the total number of officers then holding office) and (b) the President shall not be a Non-Citizen for so long as proscribed by the Act (as defined in Article X below).
ARTICLE VI    
RECORDS AND REPORTS
6.1    MAINTENANCE AND INSPECTION OF RECORDS.
The Corporation shall, either at its principal executive office or at such place or places as designated by the Board, keep a record of its stockholders listing their names and addresses and the number and class of shares held by each stockholder, a copy of these Bylaws as amended to date, accounting books and other records. Notwithstanding anything to the contrary in these Bylaws, any stockholder of record shall be entitled to all rights to which such stockholder is entitled pursuant to Section 220 of the DGCL.
6.2    INSPECTION BY DIRECTORS.
Any director shall have the right to examine the Corporation’s stock ledger, a list of its stockholders, and its other books and records for a purpose reasonably related to his or her position as a director. The Court of Chancery is hereby vested with the exclusive jurisdiction to determine whether a director is entitled to the inspection sought. The Court may summarily order the Corporation to permit the director to inspect any and all books and records, the stock ledger, and the stock list and to make copies or extracts therefrom. The Court may, in its discretion, prescribe any limitations or conditions with reference to the inspection, or award such other and further relief as the Court may deem just and proper.
ARTICLE VII    
GENERAL MATTERS
7.1    EXECUTION OF CORPORATE CONTRACTS AND INSTRUMENTS.
The Board, except as otherwise provided in these Bylaws, may authorize any officer or officers, or agent or agents, to enter into any contract or execute any instrument in the name of and on behalf of the Corporation; such authority may be general or confined to specific instances. Unless so authorized or ratified by the Board or within the agency power of an officer, no officer, agent or employee shall have any power or authority to bind the Corporation by any contract or engagement or to pledge its credit or to render it liable for any purpose or for any amount.
7.2    TRANSFER AGENT AND REGISTRARS.
The Board may appoint a transfer agent or agents and a registrar or registrars of transfer (other than the Corporation itself or an employee thereof) for the issuance of shares of stock of the Corporation and may require that all stock certificates bear the signature of such transfer agent and registrar. In the event a share certificate is authenticated by both the transfer agent and registrar, any share certificate may be signed by the facsimile of the signature of either or both of the Chief Executive Officer or President and Chief Financial Officer printed thereon. If the same is countersigned by the transfer agent

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and registrar of the Corporation, the certificates bearing the facsimile of the signatures of such officers shall be valid in all respects as if such person or persons were still in office even though such person or persons shall have died or otherwise ceased to be officers.
7.3    STOCK CERTIFICATES; PARTLY PAID SHARES.
The shares of the Corporation shall be represented by certificates, provided that the Board may provide by resolution or resolutions that some or all of any or all classes or series of its stock shall be uncertificated shares. Any such resolution shall not apply to shares represented by a certificate until such certificate is surrendered to the Corporation. Notwithstanding the adoption of such a resolution by the Board, every holder of stock represented by certificates shall be entitled to have a certificate signed by, or in the name of the Corporation by the chairperson or vice-chairperson of the Board, or the president or vice-president, and by the treasurer or an assistant treasurer, or the secretary or an assistant secretary of the Corporation representing the number of shares registered in certificate form. Any or all of the signatures on the certificate may be a facsimile. In case any officer, transfer agent or registrar who has signed or whose facsimile signature has been placed upon a certificate has ceased to be such officer, transfer agent or registrar before such certificate is issued, it may be issued by the Corporation with the same effect as if he were such officer, transfer agent or registrar at the date of issue.
The Corporation may issue the whole or any part of its shares as partly paid and subject to call for the remainder of the consideration to be paid therefor. Upon the face or back of each stock certificate issued to represent any such partly paid shares, upon the books and records of the Corporation in the case of uncertificated partly paid shares, the total amount of the consideration to be paid therefor and the amount paid thereon shall be stated. Upon the declaration of any dividend on fully paid shares, the Corporation shall declare a dividend upon partly paid shares of the same class, but only upon the basis of the percentage of the consideration actually paid thereon.
7.4    SPECIAL DESIGNATION ON CERTIFICATES.
If the Corporation is authorized to issue more than one class of stock or more than one series of any class, then the powers, the designations, the preferences and the relative, participating, optional or other special rights of each class of stock or series thereof and the qualifications, limitations or restrictions of such preferences and/or rights shall be set forth in full or summarized on the face or back of the certificate that the Corporation shall issue to represent such class or series of stock; provided, however, that, except as otherwise provided in Section 202 of the DGCL, in lieu of the foregoing requirements, there may be set forth on the face or back of the certificate that the Corporation shall issue to represent such class or series of stock a statement that the Corporation will furnish without charge to each stockholder who so requests the powers, the designations, the preferences and the relative, participating, optional or other special rights of each class of stock or series thereof and the qualifications, limitations or restrictions of such preferences and/or rights.
7.5    LOST CERTIFICATES.
Except as provided in this Section 7.5, no new certificates for shares shall be issued to replace a previously issued certificate unless the latter is surrendered to the Corporation and cancelled at the same time. The Corporation may issue a new certificate of stock or uncertificated shares in the place of any certificate theretofore issued by it, alleged to have been lost, stolen or destroyed, and the Corporation may require the owner of the lost, stolen or destroyed certificate, or such owner’s legal representative, to give the Corporation a bond sufficient to indemnify it against any claim that may be

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made against it on account of the alleged loss, theft or destruction of any such certificate or the issuance of such new certificate or uncertificated shares.
7.6    CONSTRUCTION; DEFINITIONS.
Unless the context requires otherwise, the general provisions, rules of construction and definitions in the DGCL shall govern the construction of these Bylaws. Without limiting the generality of this provision, the singular number includes the plural, the plural number includes the singular, and the term “person” includes both a corporation and a natural person.
7.7    DIVIDENDS.
The Board, subject to any restrictions contained in either (i) the DGCL or (ii) the Certificate of Incorporation, may declare and pay dividends upon the shares of its capital stock. Dividends may be paid in cash, in property or in shares of the Corporation’s capital stock.
The Board may set apart out of any of the funds of the Corporation available for dividends a reserve or reserves for any proper purpose and may abolish any such reserve. Such purposes shall include but not be limited to equalizing dividends, repairing or maintaining any property of the Corporation, and meeting contingencies.
7.8    FISCAL YEAR.
The fiscal year of the Corporation shall be fixed by resolution of the Board and may be changed by the Board.
7.9    SEAL.
The Corporation may adopt a corporate seal, which shall be adopted and which may be altered by the Board. The Corporation may use the corporate seal by causing it or a facsimile thereof to be impressed or affixed or in any other manner reproduced.
7.10    TRANSFER OF STOCK.
Shares of the Corporation shall be transferable in the manner prescribed by law and in these Bylaws. Shares of stock of the Corporation shall be transferred on the books of the Corporation only by the holder of record thereof or by such holder’s attorney duly authorized in writing, upon surrender to the Corporation of the certificate or certificates representing such shares endorsed by the appropriate person or persons (or by delivery of duly executed instructions with respect to uncertificated shares), with such evidence of the authenticity of such endorsement or execution, transfer, authorization and other matters as the Corporation may reasonably require, and accompanied by all necessary stock transfer stamps. No transfer of stock shall be valid as against the Corporation for any purpose until it shall have been entered in the stock records of the Corporation by an entry showing the names of the persons from and to whom it was transferred.
7.11    STOCK TRANSFER AGREEMENTS.
The Corporation shall have power to enter into and perform any agreement with any number of stockholders of any one or more classes of stock of the Corporation to restrict the transfer of shares of stock of the Corporation of any one or more classes owned by such stockholders in any manner not prohibited by the DGCL.

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7.12    REGISTERED STOCKHOLDERS.
The Corporation:
(i)    shall be entitled to recognize the exclusive right of a person registered on its books as the owner of shares to receive dividends and to vote as such owner;
(ii)    shall be entitled to hold liable for calls and assessments the person registered on its books as the owner of shares; and
(iii)    shall not be bound to recognize any equitable or other claim to or interest in such share or shares on the part of another person, whether or not it shall have express or other notice thereof, except as otherwise provided by the laws of Delaware.
7.13    WAIVER OF NOTICE.
Whenever notice is required to be given under any provision of the DGCL, the Certificate of Incorporation or these Bylaws, a written waiver, signed by the person entitled to notice, or a waiver by electronic transmission by the person entitled to notice, whether before or after the time of the event for which notice is to be given, shall be deemed equivalent to notice. Attendance of a person at a meeting shall constitute a waiver of notice of such meeting, except when the person attends a meeting for the express purpose of objecting, at the beginning of the meeting, to the transaction of any business because the meeting is not lawfully called or convened. Neither the business to be transacted at, nor the purpose of, any regular or special meeting of the stockholders need be specified in any written waiver of notice or any waiver by electronic transmission unless so required by the Certificate of Incorporation or these Bylaws.
7.14    EXCLUSIVE FORUM.
Unless the Corporation consents in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, the Delaware Court of Chancery shall be the sole and exclusive forum for (A) any derivative action or proceeding brought on behalf of the Corporation, (B) any action asserting a claim of breach of a fiduciary duty owed by any director or officer or other employee of the Corporation to the Corporation or the Corporation’s stockholders, (C) any action asserting a claim against the Corporation or any director or officer or other employee of the Corporation arising pursuant to any provision of the DGCL, the certificate of incorporation or the bylaws and (D) any action asserting a claim against the Corporation or any director, officer, stockholder or employee of the Corporation governed by the internal affairs doctrine.
ARTICLE VIII    
NOTICE BY ELECTRONIC TRANSMISSION
8.1    NOTICE BY ELECTRONIC TRANSMISSION.
Without limiting the manner by which notice otherwise may be given effectively to stockholders pursuant to the DGCL, the Certificate of Incorporation or these Bylaws, any notice to stockholders given by the Corporation under any provision of the DGCL, the Certificate of Incorporation or these Bylaws shall be effective if given by a form of electronic transmission consented to by the stockholder to whom the notice is given. Any such consent shall be revocable by the stockholder by written notice to the Corporation. Any such consent shall be deemed revoked if:

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(i)    the Corporation is unable to deliver by electronic transmission two (2) consecutive notices given by the Corporation in accordance with such consent; and
(ii)    such inability becomes known to the secretary or an assistant secretary of the Corporation or to the transfer agent, or other person responsible for the giving of notice.
However, the inadvertent failure to treat such inability as a revocation shall not invalidate any meeting or other action.
Any notice given pursuant to the preceding paragraph shall be deemed given:
(i)    if by facsimile telecommunication, when directed to a number at which the stockholder has consented to receive notice;
(ii)    if by electronic mail, when directed to an electronic mail address at which the stockholder has consented to receive notice;
(iii)    if by a posting on an electronic network together with separate notice to the stockholder of such specific posting, upon the later of (A) such posting and (B) the giving of such separate notice; and
(iv)    if by any other form of electronic transmission, when directed to the stockholder.
An affidavit of the secretary or an assistant secretary or of the transfer agent or other agent of the Corporation that the notice has been given by a form of electronic transmission shall, in the absence of fraud, be prima facie evidence of the facts stated therein.
8.2    DEFINITION OF ELECTRONIC TRANSMISSION.
An “electronic transmission” means any form of communication, not directly involving the physical transmission of paper, that creates a record that may be retained, retrieved and reviewed by a recipient thereof, and that may be directly reproduced in paper form by such a recipient through an automated process.
ARTICLE IX    
INDEMNIFICATION
9.1    INDEMNIFICATION OF DIRECTORS AND OFFICERS.
The Corporation shall indemnify and hold harmless, to the fullest extent permitted by the DGCL as it presently exists or may hereafter be amended, any director or officer of the Corporation who was or is made or is threatened to be made a party or is otherwise involved in any action, suit or proceeding, whether civil, criminal, administrative or investigative (a “Proceeding”) by reason of the fact that he or she, or a person for whom he or she is the legal representative, is or was a director or officer of the Corporation or is or was serving at the request of the Corporation as a director, officer, employee or agent of another corporation or of a partnership, joint venture, trust, enterprise or non-profit entity, including service with respect to employee benefit plans, against all liability and loss suffered and expenses (including attorneys’ fees) reasonably incurred by such person in connection with any such Proceeding. Notwithstanding the preceding sentence, except as otherwise provided in Section 9.4, the

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Corporation shall be required to indemnify a person in connection with a Proceeding initiated by such person only if the Proceeding was authorized in the specific case by the Board.
9.2    INDEMNIFICATION OF OTHERS.
The Corporation shall have the power to indemnify and hold harmless, to the extent permitted by applicable law as it presently exists or may hereafter be amended, any employee or agent of the Corporation who was or is made or is threatened to be made a party or is otherwise involved in any Proceeding by reason of the fact that he or she, or a person for whom he or she is the legal representative, is or was an employee or agent of the Corporation or is or was serving at the request of the Corporation as a director, officer, employee or agent of another corporation or of a partnership, joint venture, trust, enterprise or non-profit entity, including service with respect to employee benefit plans, against all liability and loss suffered and expenses reasonably incurred by such person in connection with any such Proceeding.
9.3    PREPAYMENT OF EXPENSES.
The Corporation shall to the fullest extent not prohibited by applicable law pay the expenses (including attorneys’ fees) incurred by any officer or director of the Corporation, and may pay the expenses incurred by any employee or agent of the Corporation, in defending any Proceeding in advance of its final disposition; provided, however, that, to the extent required by law, such payment of expenses in advance of the final disposition of the Proceeding shall be made only upon receipt of an undertaking by the person to repay all amounts advanced if it should be ultimately determined that the person is not entitled to be indemnified under this Article IX or otherwise.
9.4    DETERMINATION; CLAIM.
If a claim for indemnification (following the final disposition of such Proceeding) or advancement of expenses under this Article IX is not paid in full within sixty (60) days after a written claim therefor has been received by the Corporation the claimant may file suit to recover the unpaid amount of such claim and, if successful in whole or in part, shall be entitled to be paid the expense of prosecuting such claim to the fullest extent permitted by law. In any such action the Corporation shall have the burden of proving that the claimant was not entitled to the requested indemnification or payment of expenses under applicable law.
9.5    NON-EXCLUSIVITY OF RIGHTS.
The rights conferred on any person by this Article IX shall not be exclusive of any other rights which such person may have or hereafter acquire under any statute, provision of the Certificate of Incorporation, these Bylaws, agreement, vote of stockholders or disinterested directors or otherwise.
9.6    INSURANCE.
The Corporation may purchase and maintain insurance on behalf of any person who is or was a director, officer, employee or agent of the Corporation, or is or was serving at the request of the Corporation as a director, officer, employee or agent of another corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust enterprise or non-profit entity against any liability asserted against him or her and incurred by him or her in any such capacity, or arising out of his or her status as such, whether or not the Corporation would have the power to indemnify him or her against such liability under the provisions of the DGCL.

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9.7    OTHER INDEMNIFICATION.
The Corporation’s obligation, if any, to indemnify or advance expenses to any person who was or is serving at its request as a director, officer, employee or agent of another corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust, enterprise or non-profit entity shall be reduced by any amount such person may collect as indemnification or advancement of expenses from such other corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust, enterprise or non-profit enterprise.
9.8    CONTINUATION OF INDEMNIFICATION.
The rights to indemnification and to prepayment of expenses provided by, or granted pursuant to, this Article IX shall continue notwithstanding that the person has ceased to be a director or officer of the Corporation and shall inure to the benefit of the estate, heirs, executors, administrators, legatees and distributees of such person.
9.9    AMENDMENT OR REPEAL.
The provisions of this Article IX shall constitute a contract between the Corporation, on the one hand, and, on the other hand, each individual who serves or has served as a director or officer of the Corporation (whether before or after the adoption of these Bylaws), in consideration of such person’s performance of such services, and pursuant to this Article IX the Corporation intends to be legally bound to each such current or former director or officer of the Corporation. With respect to current and former directors and officers of the Corporation, the rights conferred under this Article IX are present contractual rights and such rights are fully vested, and shall be deemed to have vested fully, immediately upon adoption of theses Bylaws. With respect to any directors or officers of the Corporation who commence service following adoption of these Bylaws, the rights conferred under this provision shall be present contractual rights and such rights shall fully vest, and be deemed to have vested fully, immediately upon such director or officer commencing service as a director or officer of the Corporation. Any repeal or modification of the foregoing provisions of this Article IX shall not adversely affect any right or protection (i) hereunder of any person in respect of any act or omission occurring prior to the time of such repeal or modification or (ii) under any agreement providing for indemnification or advancement of expenses to an officer or director of the Corporation in effect prior to the time of such repeal or modification.
ARTICLE X    
LIMITATIONS OF OWNERSHIP BY NON-CITIZENS
10.1    DEFINITIONS.
For purposes of this Article X, the following definitions shall apply:
(a)    Act” shall mean Subtitle VII of Title 49 of the United States Code, as amended, or as the same may be from time to time amended.
(b)    Beneficial Ownership,” “Beneficially Owned” or “Owned Beneficially” refers to beneficial ownership as defined in Rule 13d-3 (without regard to the 60-day provision in paragraph (d)(1)(i) thereof) under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended.
(c)    Foreign Stock Record” shall have the meaning set forth in Section 10.3.
(d)    Non-Citizen” shall mean any person or entity who is not a “citizen of the United States” (as defined in Section 41102 of the Act and administrative interpretations issued by the

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Department of Transportation, its predecessors and successors, from time to time), including any agent, trustee or representative of a Non-Citizen.
(e)    Own or Control” or “Owned or Controlled” shall mean (x) ownership of record, (y) beneficial ownership or (z) the power to direct, by agreement, agency or in any other manner, the voting of Stock. Any determination by the Board of Directors as to whether Stock is Owned or Controlled by a Non-Citizen shall be final.
(f)    Permitted Percentage” shall mean 25% of the voting power of the Stock.
(g)    Stock” shall mean the outstanding capital stock of the Corporation entitled to vote; provided, however, that for the purpose of determining the voting power of Stock that shall at any time constitute the Permitted Percentage, the voting power of Stock outstanding shall not be adjusted downward solely because shares of Stock may not be entitled to vote by reason of any provision of this Article X.
10.2    LIMITATIONS ON OWNERSHIP.
It is the policy of the Corporation that, consistent with the requirements of the Act, Non-Citizens shall not Own and/or Control more than the Permitted Percentage and, if Non-Citizens nonetheless at any time Own and/or Control more than the Permitted Percentage, the voting rights of the Stock in excess of the Permitted Percentage shall be automatically suspended in accordance with Sections 10.3 and 10.4.
10.3    FOREIGN STOCK RECORD.
The Corporation or its transfer agent shall maintain a separate stock record (the “Foreign Stock Record”) in which shall be registered Stock known to the Corporation to be Owned and/or Controlled by Non-Citizens. It shall be the duty of each stockholder to register his, her or its Stock if such stockholder is a Non-Citizen. A Non-Citizen may, at its option, register any Stock to be purchased pursuant to an agreement entered into with the Corporation, as if Owned or Controlled by it, upon execution of a definitive agreement. Such Non-Citizen shall register his, her or its Stock by sending a written request to the Corporation, noting both the execution of a definitive agreement for the purchase of Stock and the anticipated closing date of such transaction. Within ten days of the closing, the Non-Citizen shall send to the Corporation a written notice confirming that the closing occurred. Failure to send such confirmatory notice shall result in the removal of such Stock from the Foreign Stock Record. For the sake of clarity, any Stock registered as a result of execution of a definitive agreement shall not have any voting or other ownership rights until the closing of that transaction. In the event that the sale pursuant to such definitive agreement is not consummated in accordance with such agreement (as may be amended), such Stock shall be removed from the Foreign Stock Record without further action by the Corporation. The Foreign Stock Record shall include (i) the name and nationality of each such Non-Citizen and (ii) the date of registration of such shares in the Foreign Stock Record. In no event shall shares in excess of the Permitted Percentage be entered on the Foreign Stock Record. In the event that the Corporation shall determine that Stock registered on the Foreign Stock Record exceeds the Permitted Percentage, sufficient shares shall be removed from the Foreign Stock Record so that the number of shares entered therein does not exceed the Permitted Percentage. Stock shall be removed from the Foreign Stock Record in reverse chronological order based upon the date of registration therein.

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10.4    SUSPENSION OF VOTING RIGHTS.
If at any time the number of shares of Stock known to the Corporation to be Owned and/or Controlled by Non-Citizens exceeds the Permitted Percentage, the voting rights of Stock Owned and/or Controlled by Non-Citizens and not registered on the Foreign Stock Record at the time of any vote or action of the stockholders of the Corporation shall, without further action by the Corporation, be suspended. Such suspension of voting rights shall automatically terminate upon the earlier of the (i) transfer of such shares to a person or entity who is not a Non-Citizen, or (ii) registration of such shares on the Foreign Stock Record, subject to the last two sentences of Section 10.3.
10.5    CERTIFICATION OF CITIZENSHIP.
(a)    The Corporation may by notice in writing (which may be included in the form of proxy or ballot distributed to stockholders in connection with the annual meeting or any special meeting of the stockholders of the Corporation, or otherwise) require a person that is a holder of record of Stock or that the Corporation knows to have, or has reasonable cause to believe has, Beneficial Ownership of Stock to certify in such manner as the Corporation shall deem appropriate (including by way of execution of any form of proxy or ballot of such person) that, to the knowledge of such person:
(i)    all Stock as to which such person has record ownership or Beneficial Ownership is Owned and Controlled only by citizens of the United States; or
(ii)    the number and class or series of Stock owned of record or Beneficially Owned by such person that is Owned and/or Controlled by Non-Citizens is as set forth in such certificate.
(b)    With respect to any Stock identified in response to clause (i)(b) above, the Corporation may require such person to provide such further information as the Corporation may reasonably require in order to implement the provisions of this Article X.
(c)    For purposes of applying the provisions of this Article X with respect to any Stock, in the event of the failure of any person to provide the certificate or other information to which the Corporation is entitled pursuant to this Section 10.5, the Corporation shall presume that the Stock in question is Owned and/or Controlled by Non-Citizens.
ARTICLE XI    
AMENDMENTS
Subject to the limitations set forth in Section 9.9 of these Bylaws or the provisions of the Corporation’s Certificate of Incorporation, the Board is expressly empowered to adopt, amend or repeal these Bylaws. Any adoption, amendment or repeal of these Bylaws by the Board shall require the approval of a majority of the authorized number of directors. The stockholders also shall have power to adopt, amend or repeal these Bylaws; provided, however, that, in addition to any vote of the holders of any class or series of stock of the Corporation required by law or by the Corporation’s Certificate of Incorporation, such action by stockholders shall require the affirmative vote of the holders of at least a majority of the Voting Stock.
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